Prog Rock Magazine Pdf 44
The formation of late crystalline pyroxenes and pegmatites thus involved extensive diffusion of volatile and other components accompanying the establishment of domains of reduced pressure in hot and slowly cooled rocks subjected to gradual deformation due to progressive subsidence of the central parts of the intrusion. The final fabric is therefore metamorphic resulting from annealing rather than crystal accumulation.
prog rock magazine pdf 44
The nature of the upper mantle below the ancient cratonic areas can be deduced by study of the xenolith suites in kimberlites. Studies on the proportions of xenoliths, together with their mineralogy and chemistry, suggest an upper mantle containing an upper harzburgite zone and a lower lherzolite zone, with both of these zones containing chemical and mineralogical variants, together with minor rock types such as glimmerites, MARID-suite rocks, pyroxenites, and eclogites. Isotopic studies of the phases in xenoliths have yielded restricted ranges of values for the isotopic composition of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and sulphur which are tentatively identified as the true isotopic values for these elements in the upper mantle. In addition, recent discoveries suggest that diamond may be a primary uppermantle phase.
The textures and fabrics of the xenoliths indicate that plastic deformation has taken place in connection with the intrusive kimberlite event, and also in earlier events unconnected with the kimberlite event. In addition, brittle fracture has been observed, this fracturing often being accompanied by the filling of the ensuing veins and joints by fluids that have crystallized potassium-, titanium-, and water-rich phases; limited metasomatism of peridotite wall rocks accompanies this vein filling and more widespread pervasive metasomatism may also be present.
Although most upper-mantle rocks are now metamorphic, in some rare instances there are relics of earlier rock types that have not been completely obliterated by subsequent metamorphic events; most of these could be attributed to an igneous origin and in most cases during subsequent metamorphism the original rock types have been subjected to increasing pressures and/or lower temperatures.
Although the source of most materials now present at the earth's surface can be directly attributed to some identifiable source within upper-mantle rocks, no source has yet been identified for CO2, N, P, and the rare gases.
This paper discusses the relationship between the chemical composition of basic melts and the temperatures at which olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase begin to crystallize at one atmosphere. Diagrams are given which show the correlation between crystallization temperature and melt composition and which allow some of the temperatures to be estimated. Because the relationship between melt composition and crystallization temperature is virtually linear over short compositional ranges, the data available can be subdivided and examined by linear multivariate statistical techniques. The result is a set of equations which permit the crystallization temperatures to be calculated with an average error of less than 6 C and a maximum error of 27 C. These equations have been tested by experimental determination of crystallization temperatures for a range of rocks from the Marquesas Islands.
Normal carbonatite magmas are characteristically associated with ijolites and produce extensive fenitization by alkali metasomatism, commonly feldspathization or phlogopitization. The sequence of carbonatites developed from this magma are characterized by igneous isotopic ratios, high contents of incompatible elements, their distinctive pattern of differentiation from sövite to beforsite, and a late-stage rare-earth element, baryte, fluorite mineralization. Carbonatite rock is composed mainly of calcite, but fluid inclusion and related data indicate that the original magma was highly alkaline and chemically similar to that known at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania. It is suggested that this carbonatite magma is secondary magma produced from carbonated nephelinite magma by liquid immiscibility. Carbonatite magma can also occur associated with kimberlites but these carbonatites are alkali-poor and do not produce the characteristic fenitization.
The development of low- and hightemperature alteration products in a 23 m section of ocean-floor basalts is described. Analcime, calcite and dioctahedral smectite are ubiquitous. Trioctahedral smectite, smectite-chlorite mixed layers, chabazite and scolecite occur in the deeper sections with Fe3+ oxides/hydroxides progressively becoming more abundant in the upper regions. The upper layers of the sequence show marked chemical reduction. High-temperature chemical changes include Na and Mg enrichment accompanied by Ca and Fe2+ losses. Superimposed low temperature changes include gains in Fe3+ K, Li, and Rb, and losses in Na, Ca, and Fe2+ Many trace elements also show consistent behaviour.
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